Data Snapshot 2016
¹ Pittsburgh Promise (9/20/16)
Wald, J., & Losen, D. (2003). Defining and redirecting a school-to-prison pipeline.
New Directions for Youth Development
, 99, 9-15.
Wallace, J. M., Jr., Goodkind, S., Wallace, C., & Bachman, J. (2008). Racial/ethnic and gender differences in school discipline among
American high school students: 1991-2005.
The Negro Educational Review
, 59, 47-62.
Civil Rights Data Collection (2013-2014). Accessed online athttp://ocrdata.ed.gov
Crenshaw K., Ocen, P., & Nanda, J. (2015).
Black girls matter: Pushed out, overpoliced and underprotected
. New York, NY: African
American Policy Forum.
Morris, M. W. (2016).
Pushout: The Criminalization of Black Girls in Schools
. New York, NY: The New Press.
Van den Bergh, L., Denessen, E., Hornstra, L., Voeten, M., & Holland, R. W. (2010). The implicit prejudiced attitudes of teachers: Relations
to teacher expectations and the ethnic achievement gap.
American Educational Research Journal
, 47(2), 497-527.
Jones, N. (2010).
Between good and ghetto: African American girls and inner-city violence
. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.
American Association of University Women. (2001).
Hostile hallways: Bullying, teasing, and sexual harassment in school
. New York.
Personal communication, Nancy Hubley Esq., Education Law Center.
Black girls comprise the largest group receiving Pittsburgh Promise college scholarships, and,
of those scholars, many are successfully navigating higher education.
While some Black girls
are progressing through the education system, many others encounter significant barriers that
impact their success. Recent attention has been focused on what has been termed the school-
School discipline and exclusion often lead to justice system involvement, and
youth of color are much more likely than White youth to experience school discipline, despite
evidence that their behaviors do not differ as much as these disproportionate rates would
Black girls in Pittsburgh Public Schools are more than
3 times as likely
as White girls to be suspended from school.
At times, Black girls are pushed out of
school and caught up in the justice system
for behaviors in which others girls engage
but for which they do not experience this
same exclusion and punishment.
evidence that differential treatment of Black
girls in schools is often a result of implicit
biases. Internalized racialized gender norms
impact how authority figures react to Black
girls, and stereotypes about Black girls may
lead teachers to label them insubordinate or
Black girls are especially likely
to be disciplined for behaviors which are
subjective, such as defiance and disrespect.
Often when girls, especially Black girls, are
disciplined at school for disruptive behavior
or fighting it is because they are defending
themselves from harassment or assault.
national survey of 8th - 11th graders found
that two-thirds of Black girls, and over half
of White girls, had been “touched, grabbed,
or pinched in a sexual way” in their schools.
Some schools have resorted to protecting
girls from harassment and assault by sending
them home after marking them present,
rather than sanctioning the perpetrators and
creating a safe learning environment.
the ways we deal with Black girls’ behaviors
in schools frequently punishes them for their
own victimization and, at times, criminalizes
their survival strategies.